A New Species of Nasal Mite of the Genus Sternostoma (Rhinonyssidae) from Serinus canaria (Passeriformes) from Saint Petersburg, Russia
1Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Universitetskaya embankment 1, Saint Petersburg, 199034, Russia
*Corresponding Author: Ivan DIMOV Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Universitetskaya embankment 1, Saint Petersburg, 199034, Russia e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Geliş Tarihi / Received: 28.05.2012
A new species of nasal mite Sternostoma marchae n. sp. is described from the domestic race of Island Canary Serinus canaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (Passeriformes, Fringillidae) from Saint Petersburg, Russia. The full description is presented.
Key Words: Rhinonyssidae, Sternostoma, nasal mites, Passeriformes
SAINT PETERSBURG, RUSYADA KANARYADAN (PASSERIFORMES) STERNOSTOMA (RHINONYSSIDAE) CİNSİNE AİT YENİ BİR NAZAL MAYT TÜRÜ
Saint Petersburg, Rusyada yerli bir kanarya ırkından (Linnaeus, 1758) (Passeriformes, Fringillidae), yeni bir nazal mayt türü Sternostoma marchae n. sp. tanımlanmaktadır. Tam bir tanımlama aşağıda verilmiştir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Rhinonyssidae, Sternostoma, nazal mayt, Passeriformes
Mites of the family Rhinonyssidae are slowmoving mites, permanent parasites of birds, living in their respiratory tract (Fain, 1994; George, 1961; Knee and Proctor, 2010). Most species live in nasal turbinates, a cavity of vascularized epithelial tissue. However, some species occupy the lungs, tracheal tissues and body cavity of their host (Krantz and Walter, 2009; Porter and Strandtmann, 1952). Rhinonyssid mites disperse by the oral route when infested adult birds regurgitate food to their nestlings or during courtship behavior. Indirect transmission has been detected through water, perches, or other contaminated surfaces (Bell, 1996). It is thought that they are descendents of ectoparasitic predecessors which were probably related to the Macronyssidae (Strandtmann, 1948). Most likely that they originated as parasites of bats and later turned into parasites of reptiles, birds, and other mammals (Radovsky, 1985). The level of host
226 Ivan Dimov
specificity is variable across rhinonyssid genera, in that some genera are restricted to one host family, while others occur on hosts from several avian orders (Butenko, 1984; Fain, 1957; Pence, 1975).
The genus Sternostoma -Berlese and Trouessart, 1889- is one of the most speciesrich genera of rhinonyssids, with at least 60 described species (Butenko, 1984; Fain, 1957; Knee, 2008). Sternostoma species have been collected from birds belonging to 18 orders from all over the world (Domrow, 1969).
In the present work a new species of the genus Sternostoma is described from a passerine host from Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Materials and Methods
Mite specimens were collected from deceased Island Canaries provided by amateur ornithologists from Saint Petersburg. Bird heads were placed into a dish with 80% ethanol, dissected and examined under a dissecting stereomicroscope. Detected mite specimens were removed with needles and preserved in 70% ethanol. Further, mites were mounted in Hoyers medium following the technique of Bregetova (1956).
Descriptions of new species are given in a standard format for Rhinonyssid mites (Knee, 2008; Pence, 1975).The following designations for particular structures are adapted from Knee (2008): LB- length of body including palps;
Figure 1. Sternostoma marchae, female dorsum.
Şekil 1. Sternostoma marchae, dişi üstten görünüm.
WID width of idiosoma; LPS length of podosomal shield; WPS width of podosomal shield; LOS length of opisthosomal shield; WOS width of opisthosomal shield; LSS length of sternal shield; WSS width of sternal shield; LGS length of genital shield; WGS width of genital shield; LG length of gnathosoma, ventral view, including palps; WG width of gnathosoma; LCH length of helicerae; WCH - width of helicerae; Lleg I to Lleg IV - length of leg, including coxa, excluding ambulacrum. All measuremenst are in micrometers.
Names of the setae on the body of the Rhinonyssid mites: j3, 5, 6, z2-4; J1, J2; Z2, Z3; st 1,2,3; Jv1-2; Zv1
Holotypes and paratypes are deposited in the collections of Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Results and Discussion
Family Rhinonyssidae (Trouessart, 1895)
Genus Sternostoma Berlese and
The genus Sternostoma -Berlese and
Trouessart, 1889- is species-rich genus, with at least 60 described species (Butenko, 1984; Fain, 1957; Knee, 2008). I recognize here one new species and I give its full description.
Sternostoma marchae sp. nov.
Figure 2. Sternostoma marchae, female ventrum.
Şekil 2. Sternostoma marchae, dişi alttan görünüm.
A New Species of Nasal Mite of the Genus Sternostoma (Rhinonyssidae) from 227
Serinus canaria (Passeriformes) from Saint Petersburg, Russia
Female (holotype and 9 paratypes): LB- 330-351; WID 187-198; LPS 155-170; WPS 132-147; LOS 98-104; WOS 33-40; LSS 45-48; WSS 47-49; LGS 62-67; WGS 45-50; LG 64-72; WG 63-67; LCH 89-98; WCH - 23-28; Lleg I 210-239; Lleg II 137161; LlegIII 162-190; Lleg IV 181-210.
Dorsum: (Figure 1) Podosomal shield lightly sclerotized, anterior margin of the shield attenuate and rounded lateral margins strongly convex, posterior margin straight. Six pairs of short setae along margin of podosomal shield (j3, 5, 6, z2-4). Stigmata dorsolateral, situated at level podosomal shield posterior margin. Opisthosomal shield elongate and narrow, with a pair of small setae on the posterior margin (J1, J2). Four or 5 setae on opisthosomal shield. The fifth may be on the left or on the right posterior part of the shield. Two pairs of setae on lateral margin of opisthosomal shield (Z2, Z3).
Venter: (Figure 2) Sternal shield with transverse wave ornamentation, sternal shield heavily sclerotized throughout and weakly
Figure 3. Sternostoma marchae, dişi dorsum.
Şekil 3. Sternostoma marchae, dişi üstten görünüm.
sclerotized along peripheral margins. Two pairs of setae (st2,3) situated lateral to the sternal shield, and one pair (st1) near the sternal shield anterior margin. Genital shield broad, poorly sclerotized, and without setae. Ventral opisthosoma with two pairs of relatively large setae (Jv1-2) and one pair of little sharply tipped setae (Zv1). Anal shield situated terminaly on the posterior of the idiosoma. Gnathosoma inserted ventrally. Six deutosternal teeth present. No hypostomal and subcapitular setae present.
Legs: All legs six-segmented. Chaetotaxy of legs: 2-2-1-0. Trochanter 3-3-4-4. Femur 9-5-52. Genu 8-4-4-2. Tibia 7-4-4-4. Tarsus 16-7-911 Tarsus III IV apical ventral have also 1 long (10 μm) seta. Tarsus I-IV with long setae (9-11 μm). All tarsi with caruncle and claws.
Male, nymphs, larva: Unknown.
Type material: Female holotype with two female paratypes (ZISP 4714) and 7 female paratypes (ZISP 4715, 4716) from Serinus canaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (Fringillidae), Russia, Saint Petersburg, (59° 56' N, 30° 18' W), 02 July 2010; coll. I. Dimov.
Figure 4. Sternostoma marchae, dişi ventrum.
Şekil 4. Sternostoma marchae, dişi alttan görünüm.
Table 1. Characters differentiating St. marchae n.sp. and St. tracheacolum.
Tablo 1. St. marchae n.sp. ve St. tracheacolumun ayırıcı özellikleri.
I am especially grateful to my colleagues and amateur ornithologists Olga Sizmina and Mihail Galizkii for providing me with material for the present research. I owe a great debt to Dr. Sergey Mironov (Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg) for his helpful revision of the manuscript.
Bell, P.J., 1996. The life history and transmission biology of Sternostoma tracheacolum Lawrence (Acari: Rhinonyssidae) associated with the Gouldian finch Erytrura gouldidae.
Experimental and Applied Acarology 20, 323334.
Bregetova, N.G., 1956. Gamasoidea mites. RAS USSR Moscow, pp. 1-246.
Butenko, O.M., 1984. Rhinonyssid mites nonpasserine birds in the USSR. Moscow, pp. 1- 188.
Domrow, R., 1969. The nasal mites of Queensland birds (Acari: Dermanyssidae, Ereynetidae, and Epidermoptidae). Proceedings of The Linnean Society of New South Wales 93, 297-426.
Fain, A., 1957. Les acariens des familles Epidermoptidae et Rhinonyssidae parasites des fosses nasales doiseaux au Ruanda-Urundi et au Congo belge. Musée Royal du Congo Belge, Sér. en 8° 60, 1-176.
Fain, A., 1994. Adaptation, specificity and host parasite coevolution in mites (Acari). Internal Journal for Parasitology 24, 1273-1283.
George, J.E., 1961. The nasal mites of the genus Ptilonyssus (Acarina: Rhinonyssidae) occurring in some North American passeriform birds. Kansas Entomological Society 34, 105-132.
Knee, W., 2008. Five new species of Rhinonyssidae (Mesostigmata) and one new species of Dermanyssus (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae) from birds of Alberta and Manitoba, Canada. Journal of Parasitology 94, 348-374.
Knee, W., Proctor, H., 2010. Interactive HTML-based Dichotomous Key to Female Rhinonyssidae (Mesostigmata) from Birds in Canada http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejournal/kp _09/kp_09_main.html (January 25, 2010).
A New Species of Nasal Mite of the Genus Sternostoma (Rhinonyssidae) from 229
Serinus canaria (Passeriformes) from Saint Petersburg, Russia
Krantz, G.W., Walter, D.E., 2009. A manual of acarology. 3rd Edition Texas Technical
University Press, Texas: pp. 1-759.
Pence, D.B., 1975. Keys, species and host list, and bioliography for nasal mites of North American birds (Acarina: Rhinonyssinae, Turbinoptinae, Speleognathinae, and Cytoditidae). Special Pub. Museum, Texas Technical University Press, Texas, pp 1-148.
Porter, J.C., Strandtmann, R.W., 1952. Nasal mites of the English sparrow. Texas Journal of Science 4, 393-399.
Radovsky, F.J., 1985. Evolution of mammalian mesostigmate mites. In: Kim, K.C. (Ed) Coevolution of Parasitic Arthropods and Mammals. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 441-504.
Strandtmann, R.W., 1948. The mesostigmatic nasal mites of birds. I. Two new genera from shore and marsh birds. Journal of Parasitology 34, 505-514.